mindfulschools Programm

Die Wirksamkeit von Achtsamkeitstrainings an Schulen wird beispielhaft an dem not-for-profit Training mindfulschools sichtbar. Mindfulschools hat weltweit seit 2007 über 1 Million Schüler erreicht (in allen 50 U.S. Staaten und über 100 Ländern), evaluiert die Wirksamkeit von jedem ausgeführten Kurs und führt zusätzlich eine jährliche Evaluation über die Auswirkungen auf die Abschlussnoten durch: weitere Infos…

Achtsamkeit im Bildungswesen

Der Bericht „MINDFUL NATION UK / Report by the Mindfulness All-Party Parliamentary Group (MAPPG) / October 2015“

  • ist Höhepunkt einer einjährigen Untersuchung der Effekte von Achtsamkeitstrainings
  • beinhaltete acht Anhörungen im Parlament
  • bewertet die wissenschaftliche Evidenz für Achtsamkeit
  • führt aktuelle Best Practice Beispiele auf
  • spricht konkrete Achtsamkeits-Empfehlungen an die Regierung u.a. zum Bildungswesen aus

Die Rolle von Achtsamkeit im Bildungswesen / Kapitel 3 [1]

Wissenschaftliche Beweisgrundlage [68]

Many argue that the most important prerequisites for child development are executive control (the management of cognitive processes such as memory, problem solving, reasoning and planning) and emotion regulation (the ability to understand and manage the emotions, including and especially impulse control). These main contributors to self-regulation underpin emotional wellbeing, effective learning and academic attainment. They also predict income, health and criminality in adulthood [69]. American psychologist, Daniel Goleman, is a prominent exponent of the research [70] showing that these capabilities are the biggest single determinant of life outcomes. They contribute to the ability to cope with stress, to concentrate, and to use metacognition (thinking about thinking: a crucial skill for learning). They also support the cognitive exibility required for effective decision-making and creativity. There is promising evidence that mindfulness training has been shown to enhance executive control in children [71] and adolescents [72] in line with adult evidence.

What is of particular interest is that those with the lowest levels of executive control [73] and emotional stability [74] are likely to benefit most from mindfulness training.

Recent meta-analyses of MBIs for children and adolescents suggested improvements in stress, anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioural regulation, with larger effects reported in clinical than in non- clinical populations [75]. One of the most rigorous studies [76] looked at the impact of an eight-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction course (MBSR) on 102 children aged 4-18 with a wide range of mental health diagnoses and they reported significantly reduced symptoms of anxiety, depression and distress. They also reported increased self-esteem and sleep quality. At a three-month follow-up, those who practised more showed improved clinicians’ ratings of anxiety and depression compared with those who did not. Since chronic stress can negatively impact on maturation of the brain areas involved in learning [77], interventions to improve executive function which also support stress reduction, such as mindfulness, are more likely to result in academic improvements [78]. Indeed, studies on mindfulness with children and adolescents have demonstrated benefits in cognitive (e.g. attention) and academic outcomes [79]. There is now also good evidence of the link between achievement and emotional and social learning; a recent global survey found that the academic achievement of children taking programmes promoting social and emotional skills (including mindfulness) rose by about 10 percentile points [80]. More specifically, one evaluation of a small study of children with learning difficulties showed significantly improved academic achievement as well as social skills [81]. Emotional buoyancy, coping skills, the capacity to manage dif culties and the ability to form constructive social relationships are all important aspects of children’s flourishing and there is evidence that mindfulness contributes to each [82].

These positive effects are often apparent three years after taking a course and relatively short inputs produce discernible results [83].

In addition to studies of targeted interventions, there is evidence of the benefits of universal programmes designed to support the flourishing of all children. One pilot trial [84] of a year group of 137 students aged 17-19 in the US showed decreases in tiredness and negative affectivity (a term which covers a range of negative emotions such as sadness, fear, nervousness, guilt, disgust, anxiety and anger) and increases in calm, relaxation, self-acceptance and emotional regulation. In a number of other studies, five-minute mindfulness interventions were shown to have a measurable impact on young people’s happiness, calmness, relaxation and overall wellbeing [85]. There have been a number of pilot studies in the UK with similar results; in one with 522 students in 12 secondary schools using a mindfulness programme called “.b” (pronounced ‘dot-be’), students reported fewer depressive symptoms, lower stress and greater wellbeing at follow-up [86]. A recently completed study with sixth-form students found an increased capacity to ignore distracting and irrelevant stimuli (part of executive control) and improved metacognition [87], and another small study reported improvements in academic performance in sixth-formers [88]. In the primary school context (Years 3 and 4), initial evidence shows decreases in negative affectivity and improvements in metacognition in pupils [89]. What could prove of particular interest to schools is the impact of mindfulness on difficult behaviour, with improvements for those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, as well as decreases in impulsiveness, aggression and oppositional behaviour [90]. This is consistent with the beneficial impact of mindfulness on self-regulation – helping to control impulses, delay gratification and monitor attention [91].

[1] MINDFUL NATION UK, Report by the Mindfulness All-Party Parliamentary Group (MAPPG), October 2015, Chapter 3, p.30 – 31, Visit www.themindfulnessinitiative.org/mindful-nation-report

Appendices p. 74 – 75 [1]

68 Professor Katherine Weare presented an overview of the evidence base at the Parliamentary hearing of the MAPPG on 19th November, 2014.

69 Moffitt TE, Arseneault L, Belsky D, Dickson N, Hancox R J, Harrington H, et al. A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2011;108(7);2693-2698.

70 Goleman D. Focus: the hidden driver of excellence. New York: HarperCollins USA; 2013.

71 Diamond A, Lee K. Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science. 2011;333(6045):959-964.

72 Sanger KL, Dorjee D. Mindfulness training for adolescents: A neurodevelopmental perspective on investigating modi cations in attention and emotion regulation using event-related brain potentials. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience. 2015;1-16.

73 Flook L, Smalley SL, Kitil MJ, Galla BM, Kaiser-Greenland S, Locke J, et al. Effects of mindful awareness practices on executive functions in elementary school children. Journal of Applied School Psychology. 2010;26(1):70-95.

74 Huppert FA, Johnson DM. A controlled trial of mindfulness training in schools: The importance of practice for an impact on wellbeing. The Journal of Positive Psychology. 2010; 5(4):264-274.

75  Zoogman S, Goldberg SB, Hoyt WT, Miller L. Mindfulness interventions with youth: A meta-analysis. Mindfulness. 2014;1-13.

76  Biegel GM, Brown KW, Shapiro SL, Schubert CM. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for the treatment of adolescent psychiatric outpatients: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2009;77:855–866.

77  Shonkoff JP, Garner AS, Siegel BS, Dobbins MI, Earls MF, McGuinn, L, et al. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics. 2012;129(1):e232-e246.

78  Posner MI, Rothbart MK, Tang Y. Developing self-regulation in early childhood. Trends in Neuroscience and Education. 2013;2(3):107-110.

79  Zenner C, Herrnleben-Kurz S, Walach H. Mindfulness-Based Interventions in schools—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in psychology. 2014;5:603.

80  Durlak JA, Weissberg RP, Dymnicki AB, Taylor RD, Schellinger KB. The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development. 2011;82(1):405–432.

81  Beauchemin J, Hutchins TL, Patterson F. Mindfulness meditation may lessen anxiety, promote social skills, and improve academic performance among adolescents with learning disabilities. Complementary Health Practice Review. 2008;13(1):34–45.

82  Layard R, Hagall A. Healthy young minds: Transforming the mental health of children. London: Report of the World Innovation Summit in Health (WISH) Mental Health and Wellbeing in Children Forum; 2015.

83  Weare K. Developing mindfulness with children and young people: A review of the evidence and policy context. Journal of Children’s Services. 2013;8(2);148.

84  Broderick PC, Metz S. Learning to BREATHE: A pilot trial of a mindfulness curriculum for adolescents. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion. 2009;2:35-46.

85  Examples include: Huppert FA, Johnson DM. A controlled trial of mindfulness training in schools: The importance of practice for an impact on wellbeing. Journal of Positive Psychology. 2010;5(4):264-274. van de Weijer-Bergsma E, Formsma AR, de Bruin EI, Bögels SM. The effectiveness of mindfulness training on behavioral problems and attentional functioning in adolescents with ADHD. Journal of child and family studies. 2012;21(5):775-787. Wisner BL, Jones B, Gwin D. School-based meditation practices for adolescents: A resource for strengthening self-regulation, emotional coping, and self- esteem. Children and Schools. 2010;32:3.

86  Kuyken W, Weare K, Ukoumunne OC, Vicary R, Motton N, Burnett R, et al. Effectiveness of the Mindfulness in Schools Programme: non-randomised controlled feasibility study. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2013;203(2):126-131. Also see Huppert FA, Johnson DM. A controlled trial of mindfulness training in schools: The importance of practice for an impact on wellbeing. The Journal of Positive Psychology. 2010;5(4):264-274.

87  Sanger KL, Dorjee D. Mindfulness training with adolescents enhances metacognition and the inhibition of irrelevant stimuli: Evidence from event-related brain potentials. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience (in review).

88  Bennett K, Dorjee D. The Impact of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Course (MBSR) on Wellbeing and Academic Attainment of Sixth-form Students. Mindfulness (in press).

89  Vickery CE, Dorjee D. Mindfulness training in primary schools decreases negative affectivity and increases meta-cognition in children. Frontiers in Psychology (in review).

90  Zylowska L, Ackerman DL, Yang MH, Futrell JL, Horton NL, Hale TS, et al. Mindfulness meditation training in adults and adolescents with ADHD: A feasibility study. Journal of Attention Disorders. 2008;11(6):737–746. Also Bogels S, Hoogstad B, van Dun L, de Schutter S, Restifo K. Mindfulness training for adolescents with externalizing disorders and their parents. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2008;36(2):193–209.

91  Hölzel BK, Carmody J, Vangel M, Congleton C, Yerramsetti SM, Gard T, Lazar SW. Mindfulness